the country has achieved a high level Economic Development for four decades, reducing poverty and increasing per capita Income. Between 1978 and 2018, China’s economy grew at an average rate of 9.8 percent annually. today it is second largest Economy in the world after America.
China’s demographic profile has played an important role in its development. A high number of births This, along with gains in public health and basic education in the 1950s and 1960s, meant that from the 1970s onwards, the size and share of China’s working-age population boomed. is expected to contribute some 15% China’s development in the period from 1980 to 2000.
China capitalized through its demographic profile policies Which captured that working age population.
Part of the paper lays out the lessons Africa can take from China Development StrategyEven though China is very different from African countries in many respects.
African countries also differ among themselves in their demographic profile. So I’ve created two broad categories – those with a high percentage of young people, and those with a large proportion of working-age people – and set out policies they can focus on now.
China was worried about Its population will “grow old” earlier Before becoming economically prosperous per capita. In the early 1980s – when China was still young and poor – there were fears that this would inhibit long-term growth.
To avoid this, it adjusted the direction of its development policy.
I have looked into many aspects of how this unfoldedand for example in China the unique circumstances surrounding the implementation of a one child policy, Here, however, I simplify the overall Chinese approach to economic demography and development over time into two simplified aspects that are relevant to policy makers and development practitioners in the context of African development.
First, China seized on the potential of its low-wage demographic dividend of the “young” and “poor” working-age population in the late 1970s. Second, it is specifically geared to sustain the economy and the hundreds of millions of elderly people from 2020.
After the baby boom in the 1950s and 1960s, the share of China’s working-age population (measured by people aged 15–65) will increase from 100,000 between the mid-1970s and 2010. 55% to 73% of the total population,
Capturing their work-lifetime productivity potential helped drive reforms that opened up China’s economy since late 1978. A major aspect of opening up to trade and foreign direct investment was Coastal Development Strategy, Special economic zones were established to attract foreign investment.
Furthermore, in the 1990s it extended and advanced Its university area.
During this, China also made policy reforms. This would ultimately support new sources of growth for later when China’s marginal economic regions would need to be driven by the quality rather than the quantity of labor. These Involved Manufacturing and services with high added value including pension and wealth management. These are areas that China is promoting today with mixed success.
In parallel, from the 1980s and into the 1990s, China progressively established Basic Structure of Aged Care Policy and Legislative Framework, Policymakers began building a national pension and health care system more intensively from the 2000s. began to prepare shift A higher case load of infectious disease results in a higher burden of chronic disease as the population ages. And it set out to provide a very basic level of health insurance to even the poorest and most remote person.
since 2010 aged care attracted even more attention.
By the time China’s working-age population peaked in 2010, the basics were in place For the millions of people expected to become pensioners in the 2010s, 2020s and 2030s. To prevent them from falling into poverty again in old age, China has established basic income and health insurance.
lessons for africa
China’s one child policy certainly had a lot to do with its approach to development. But the approach is relevant to all countries, including Africa where life expectancy is rising. This usually means that the share of the population that is elderly is increasing.
African countries cover a wide spread of the demographic spectrum. For example, Mauritius is already considered “ageing”is measured as standard metric: More than 7% of the citizens are 65 years and above.
In contrast, Niger is the “youngest” country in the world. Now more than 2% Its population is 65 and over. However, many countries are facing a near or medium-term future where they have a high population share of working-age citizens. who would like a job, food and opportunity of a lifetime, This is thanks to an increase in the number of older people due to increasing life expectancy in most countries, and a decline in birth rates as well as reducing the share of the population of young citizens.
So what should countries do?
“Young” countries need to invest more in basic healthcare, especially maternal health. basic health care eventually reduces Confidence in the survival of each child increases as the fertility rate increases.
They also need to invest in education, especially primary school for all children.
a handful of African countries are in demographic dividend window – They have a favorable share of citizens of working age. it is included Morocco and South Africa, Their task should be to focus on job creation and a business environment that attracts labour-intensive investment. This will help in maximizing jobs.
At the same time, it is important to maximize productivity per employee and adapt to new technological frontiers. This will result in a pool of well-trained graduates, especially in the areas of science and technology.
They also need to prepare the economy and society for an increased share of the elderly in the post-middle-income phase of development.
Growing old before getting rich is commonplace
China’s economic demographic—getting old before getting rich—is now relatively mainstream.
In this century, improvements in public health, access to family planning techniques, and girls’ education, among other factors, mean that death rates are now falling in many developing countries and total fertility rates are low at low per capita incomes. Is happening
This has led many countries to grow old without getting rich, which presents a threat to many poor elderly and stagnant national economic prospects,
And this is why it is important to pursue economic development policies in tandem with the demographic change. This is what China did when it was poor and young.
By learning from China’s experience and formulating clear policies, African countries can realize their economic and demographic potential.
Read the SAIIA research report: ‘China’s Demographic Peak: Lessons and Prospects for Africa,